ASTM D6653 - Determining the Effects of High Altitude on Packaging Systems by Vacuum Method :
ASTM D6653/D6653M is a set of standard test methods designed to determine the impact of high altitude on packaging systems. This is crucial as packaged products transported via the aircraft network can reach altitudes as high as 5,791 meters (19,000 feet). The resulting pressure differential at these high altitudes can have negative impacts on the products, packaging systems, or both.
These tests serve several purposes:
- They are used to evaluate the effect of high altitude on packaging systems.
- They are utilized for the development and engineering of packages or products.
- They complement other test methods such as ASTM D3078, ASTM D4991, and ASTM D5094, which test for leakage of packaging systems using the vacuum method and are also applicable for testing the effects of high altitude.
The scope of these test methods includes assessing the pressure differential effects when packaged products are transported through various means, such as aircraft or ground transport over high mountain passes. The results of these tests are generally intended for qualitative analysis.
While the standard does not specify a detailed test procedure, typically these tests are conducted in a controlled environment, such as a vacuum chamber, to simulate the effects of high altitude on the packaging system. The packaging system is placed in the chamber, and the pressure is gradually reduced to mimic the conditions of high altitude.
The packaging system is then observed for any visible changes, such as swelling, rupture, or leakage. Other parameters such as changes in weight or volume may also be measured. This helps evaluate the packaging system's ability to withstand the pressure differentials experienced at high altitudes.
As the tests are primarily qualitative, the results are interpreted within the context of the specific requirements of the packaging system. For example, if a certain level of swelling or leakage is considered acceptable for a particular type of packaging, the system may be considered to have passed the test, even if some swelling or leakage is observed.
These test methods are particularly important for industries that frequently transport goods by air or over high mountain passes, such as the pharmaceutical, food and beverage, and electronics industries. By testing their packaging systems under simulated high altitude conditions, these industries can ensure that their products will reach their destination in good condition, even when transported at high altitudes.
Furthermore, the results from these tests can be used to inform the design and development of new packaging systems, making them an integral part of the product development process in many industries.