ASTM D5094 - Standard Test Methods for Gross Leakage of Liquids from Containers with Threaded or Lug-Style Closures:
ASTM D5094/D5094M standard provides test methods for measuring the integrity of containers and closure systems, focusing on their ability to prevent leaks under various conditions. It simulates different storage and transportation scenarios using two main test methods: the vibration and storage test in a shipping container (Method A) and the vibration test in a shipping container and vacuum chamber (Method B).
Method A subjects the shipping container and its inner packaging to vibrations and high-temperature storage conditions, thus mimicking real-world scenarios. The vibration test applies random or sinusoidal vibrations at frequencies and intensities typically encountered during transportation. The high-temperature condition represents a hot climate or direct exposure to sunlight. This test method evaluates the container's performance in the distribution environment and its ability to protect its contents from leaks.
Method B, on the other hand, is a less severe but effective test, ideal for individual containers. The container undergoes similar vibrational conditions but within a vacuum chamber, thus simulating pressure changes that containers may experience during air transportation. The speed of this test makes it a practical choice for testing a large number of containers. It assesses the closure system's ability to prevent leaks under vacuum conditions, which is crucial for air transport scenarios.
Although these tests are useful for determining leak resistance of containers with threaded or snap closures, they may not be suitable for containers intended for the transport of hazardous materials, as such materials may have specific packaging requirements that are not addressed in these tests. Therefore, these test methods should be part of a broader testing strategy, taking into account factors such as the nature of the liquid contents, specific distribution environment, and regulatory requirements. It is important to note that this ASTM standard was withdrawn in 2023.