Objective of ISTA Test Procedure ISTA 1D
1. Performance Evaluation: This technique provides an opportunity to evaluate the overall performance of a packaged product under various stress conditions it might encounter during transit.
2. Comparison of Design Alternatives: The test can be used to compare the relative performance of different packaging designs and product configurations, helping to identify the most effective options.
It's important to note that the ISTA Test Procedure ISTA 1D focuses on the packaging and the product together, not separately. However, it doesn't cover all possible transit conditions, such as exposure to moisture, pressure fluctuations, or unusual handling scenarios. ISTA Test Procedure ISTA 1D covers testing of individually packaged products weighing more than 150 lb (68 kg) when prepared for shipment.
Different ISTA procedures may be appropriate depending on the product characteristics and transportation conditions. For example, ISTA Procedure ISTA 1E or ISTA General Simulation Performance Test Procedure ISTA 3E are recommended for unitized loads of the same product.
A unitized load is a set of products or packaged products, usually placed on a pallet or platform and secured together for distribution as a single load. For a single packaged product that is unitized, ISTA Procedure ISTA 1E is advised.
Before conducting the test, the shipper should identify the damage thresholds for the product and decide what level of damage, if any, is acceptable. It's also necessary to establish the correct methodology for determining the product's condition and the acceptable condition of the packaging after the test.
ISTA guidelines can provide additional details on this process. Ideally, the samples to be tested should be the actual packaging and product, but in cases where these items are not available, substitute samples should be as identical as possible to the real items.
For a complete determination of performance, ISTA requires the procedure to be performed at least once but recommends that the test be performed five times or more using new samples for each trial.
Packages that have already been subjected to the rigors of transport cannot be assumed to represent standard conditions. Therefore, products and packages sent to certified laboratories for testing should either be over-packaged for transit to the lab or be repackaged in new packaging upon arrival at the lab.
The tests should be performed on each sample in the following order:
- Pre-conditioning (Ambient)
- Vibration (alternative methods allowed - select one test type)
- Shock, drops (alternative methods allowed - select one test type)
- Rotational drop (in some cases)
The details concerning load, force, displacement, and frequency for each of these tests are specified in the ISTA Test Procedure ISTA 1D.