ISO 536 is an international standard that provides guidelines for the determination of grammage for paper and board. Grammage refers to the weight of paper or board per unit area and is typically expressed in grams per square meter (g/m²). This standard ensures uniformity and accuracy in the measurement of grammage, which is an essential parameter in various industries such as printing, packaging, and paper manufacturing.
ISO 536 applies to all types of paper and board, including those made from various fibers and manufactured through different processes. It outlines the procedure for measuring the grammage of paper and board samples, regardless of their thickness, density, or size. The standard covers both manual and automatic methods of determining grammage.
ISO 536 provides two primary methods for determining grammage: the gravimetric method and the area method. The gravimetric method involves weighing a specified area of the sample and calculating the grammage based on the weight and the area. The area method, on the other hand, measures the dimensions of the sample and calculates the grammage using the basis weight and area formula.
The standard outlines a detailed procedure for both the gravimetric and area methods. In the gravimetric method, a representative sample of the paper or board is cut to a specific size, weighed, and the grammage is calculated using the weight and the area of the sample. The area method involves measuring the length and width of the sample, calculating the area, and then using the basis weight to determine the grammage.
ISO 536 emphasizes the importance of accuracy and precision in measuring grammage. The standard provides guidance on the required equipment, such as balances and measuring devices, and specifies the acceptable tolerances for different types of papers and boards. It also addresses potential sources of error and suggests methods to minimize them, ensuring reliable and consistent results.